These batteries are used mainly for grid energy storage and emergency backup power.
NaS batteries are significant in the energy sector, especially in renewable energy integration and grid support.
NaS batteries require specialized methods for recycling due to their hazardous materials. The sodium and sulfur components need to be handled and neutralized safely.
NaS batteries typically have a lifespan of around 15 years.
Specific regulations for NaS battery recycling are less established, but they must adhere to general hazardous material handling and waste disposal regulations.
NaS batteries are identifiable as large, industrial-scale batteries with high operating temperatures.
They operate at high temperatures (300-350°C) and have high energy density.
Sodium (anode material)
Sulfur (cathode material)
Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (ceramic electrolyte)
In chemical processes or new batteries
In the chemical industry, e.g., sulfuric acid production
Potential use in various industrial applications
According to 49 CFR § 173.189:
Batteries must not contain hazardous materials other than sodium and sulfur compounds.
Cells must be hermetically sealed and packaged to prevent contact and movement.
Batteries must be fully enclosed in a metal casing.
Restrictions on transportation by aircraft; specific conditions for transport by motor vehicle, rail car, or vessel to prevent short circuits and overheating.
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